Buildings of Earth and Straw : Structural Design for Rammed Earth and Straw Bale Architecture

Buildings of Earth and Straw : Structural Design for Rammed Earth and Straw Bale Architecture

Author(s): Bruce King

Publisher: Chelsea Green

ISBN: 0964471817

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Buildings of Earth and Straw : Structural Design for Rammed Earth and Straw Bale Architecture

Paperback, 169 pages
Publication date: April 1997

Chelsea Green’s The Rammed Earth House and The Straw Bale House chronicle the possibilities and realities of straw bale and rammed earth construction. Buildings of Earth and Strawfills in the gaps for professional builders, contractors, engineers, inspectors, lenders, and architectural students. It includes special construction requirements of earth and straw, design capabilities and limitations of these materials, and documentation of testing data for use in addressing the concerns of officials. This book offers the nuts and bolts of rammed earth and straw bale building techniques, and why they are so spectacular, durable, and earth-friendly.

Review

“Bruce King has produced a book that is both long overdue and quite timely. While I find most technical books to be dry, uninteresting, and difficult to read, Bruce has managed to provide technical information in an accessible and entertaining manner. Although parts of his book will admittedly require engineering training to understand, even the uninitiated builder will find a wealth of usable material here.”
Bob Fowler, FAIA, PE, PBO past Chairman, International Conference of Building Officials, founding member, International Codes Council

“A revolution in environmentally friendly house construction is arriving. In this book, Bruce King explores the details and methods for building durable and safe earth and straw houses.”
Sim Van der Ryn, Architect, Educator, Author of Ecological Design

 

Table of Contents

Preface

Introduction

Who Would Want to Read This Book, and Why?
Earth and Straw: Natural Companions
What We Will and Will Not Talk About
A Footnote About Bamboo…

Part One: BASICS

Abbreviations and Acronyms
Glossary
Structures and Forces

Physical Forces That Act On Structures
Some Other Variables
Foundations
Gravity Loads
Lateral Loads
In-plane Forces
Out-of-plane Forces
Earthquake Loads
Other Lateral Force Systems

Part Two: EARTH

The Material

Stabilized Earth
Rammed Earth
Gunearth
Stabilized Earth Mix Design–A Case Study

density and chemistry tests
compressive strength tests
moisture exposure tests
bond strength tests
fastener tests
admixture tests
absorptivity tests
erosion and wear resistance tests
Analysis

Design in Non-seismic Areas
Design in Seismic Areas
Foundations
Bond Beams
Lateral Loads
Analysis Method
Design and Construction Considerations

Stabilized Earth
Rammed Earth
Gunearth
Sample Calculations

Case 1: Seismic zone 2B

check h/t ratio
axial compressive stress at top of footing
Case 2: Seismic zone 4, wall cantilevered

check h/t ratio
horizontal earthquake load
compressive bending stress
shear stress
tensile bending stress in reinforcing
Case 3: Seismic zone 4, same wall restrained at top

horizontal earthquake load
design fc
compressive bending stress
shear stress
tensile bending stress in reinforcing
wall connection at top
Conclusions
Appendix E-1: Soil References
Appendix E-2: Soil-cement References
Appendix E-3: Sample Specification

Part Three: STRAW

The Material

Straw
Bales
Bale Variables
Bale Wall Types
Test Results–Straw Bale and Wall Properties

Bou-Ali test, Tucson, Arizona
SHB AGRA test, Albuquerque, New Mexico
Ship Harbour Project test, Nova Scotia
Fibrehouse Limited test, Ottawa, Ontario
Analysis

Load-bearing Straw-bale Walls
Gravity (Vertical) Loading
Lateral Loading: Wind
Lateral Loading: Earthquake
Non-load-bearing Straw-bale Walls
Design and Construction Considerations

Bales and Pinning
Wall Settling
Moisture
Fire
Sample Calculations

Case 1: Load-bearing Walls

design for bale bearing and precompression
check plaster skin in compression
design for out-of-plane shear
design for in-plane shear
Case 2: Non-load-bearing Walls

design for bale bearing and precompression
design for out-of-plane shear
design for in-plane shear
Conclusions
Appendix S-1: Straw Panels

Pyramod International, Inc., City of Industry, California
Stramit, U.S.A. L.L.C., Perryton, Texas
BioFab, Redding, California
Meadowood, Albany, Oregon
Conclusions
Appendix S-2: California Straw-bale Code
References

General
Stabilized Earth
Straw
Seismic Zone Map of the United States
Unit Conversion Tables

Base Units
SI Prefixes
SI Derived Unites with Special Names
Conversion Factors

Index

Renovating Old Houses

Cover, Renovating Old Houses

Author(s): George Nash

ISBN: 1561581283

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George Nash offers the know-how for owners who want professional results and builders who are serious about renovation. You start by evaluating whether an old house is a diamond in the rough or a broken down wreck that’s not worth the effort of renovating. Next, you’ll learn how to set priorities and handle every renovating job, including replacing foundations, rebuilding windows, installing roofing and siding, repairing plaster, upgrading wiring, plumbing and heating systems, and much more. Hundreds of photos and detailed drawings show the gruesome reality of old homes along with methods for resurrecting them. With the help of this book, you’ll bring that old home up to modern standards without sacrificing the warmth and spirit of the original. 343 pages, 1992

Construction Manual: Concrete & Formwork

Author: T.W. Love

ISBN: 0910460035

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Construction Manual: Concrete & Formwork

This manual has good information on how to select and pour the right mix for the job, excavate for foundations, lay out the structure, design and build the forms, and finish and cure the concrete.

Shows how to build forms for piers and footings, foundation walls, steps, sidewalks, beams and girders, arched openings, and more. Includes reinforcing and placing rebar. 176 pages.

Down to Earth : Foundations Past and Present : The Invisible Art of the Builder

Down to Earth : Foundations Past and Present : The Invisible Art of the Builder

Author(s): Jean Kerisel

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9061916887

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Written in straightforward non-technical language, with numerous diagrams and photographs, this book takes a look at ‘the invisible art’ of the great builders: how they founded their constructions in the earth and strove to understand and combat the natural forces, such as earth pressures, water, landslides, earthquakes, and almost imperceptible geological changes, with which they had to contend. A great many examples, including the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, the pyramids of Egypt, the Roman roads, the Tower of Pisa, the Eddystone Lighthouse, the Panama Canal, the Thames Tunnel and the Eiffel Tower, are used to illustrate various aspects of this long battle. Man has gradually mastered physical constraints and undertaken increasingly ambitious projects, seeking solutions initially by trial and error and later through scientific study, The final part of the book looks to the future and discusses the threats to a number of great cities and what has been done to counter them. This fascinating history, written with humour and affection, pays tribute to the largely unknown ‘backroom boys’ of construction, whose work usually attracts attention only when things go wrong.

 

Hardcover Publication date: August 1987

 

Design Guide to Frost Protected Shallow Foundations

Cover, Design Guide to Frost Protected Shallow Foundations

Design Guide to Frost Protected Shallow Foundations

Author(s): NAHB Research Center

Available as web page or PDF
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For decades, standard construction practice and building codes required that foundation footings be built below the frost line. A frost protected shallow foundation uses strategically placed insulation to raise the frost depth around a building, which can reduce the footing depth to as little as 16 inches, even in severely cold climates. Nordic countries have been using these methods for years. And now you can too, with the information in this detailed report prepared by the National Association of Home Builders Research Center. The report covers the theory and practice of frost protected shallow foundations and includes all the details you need to design and build in any U.S. climate. 42 pages. 1995

EEBA Building Better Homes DVD

EEBA Building Better Homes DVDCreated for builders, architects, and remodelers, this DVD-ROM shows you how to use the latest tools and techniques of building science to construct comfortable, energy-efficient homes. Building-science pioneer and world-renowned educator Mark LaLiberte demonstrates a wide range of cutting-edge procedures that are breaking new ground in the evolving world of green building. Six hours of interactive content includes:

  • Installation videos
  • Special animation
  • Close-up photos
  • Step-by-step instructions
  • Printable construction drawings & checklists
  • Work forms for on-site use

Building Better Homes takes you through every step of the process, from choosing the site and building the foundation to heating, cooling, plumbing, and electrical systems. Ideal for foremen, supervisors, and subcontractors, this hands-on reference delivers clear, specific, practical information you can use very day on the job.

EEBA Builder’s Guide to Hot-Dry / Mixed-Dry Climates

 Builder's Guide to Hot-Dry / Mixed-Dry ClimatesAuthor: Joseph Lstiburek

ISBN: 0975512706

Order From
Energy Efficient Building Association
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The North American Hot-Dry / Mixed-Dry Climate edition of the Builder’s Guide now provides the building industry with the latest and best practical information on how to apply building science principles to structures as systems with revised sections on: Foundations, Walls, Roofs and an expanded discussion of Vapor Barriers, Additional Appendixes PLUS a newly added Glossary of Terms.

©2004
490 pages

Down to Earth Foundations Past & Present

Down to Earth Foundations Past & PresentAuthor(s): Jean Kerisel

Publisher: Aa Balkema Publication

Hardcover: 162 pages

ISBN: 9061916887

ISBN-13: 978-9061916888

Order From: Amazon.com
(links will open in a new window)

Written in straightforward non-technical language, with numerous diagrams and photographs, this book takes a look at ‘the invisible art’ of the great builders: how they founded their constructions in the earth and strove to understand and combat the natural forces, such as earth pressures, water, landslides, earthquakes, and almost imperceptible geological changes, with which they had to contend. A great many examples, including the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, the pyramids of Egypt, the Roman roads, the Tower of Pisa, the Eddystone Lighthouse, the Panama Canal, the Thames Tunnel and the Eiffel Tower, are used to illustrate various aspects of this long battle. Man has gradually mastered physical constraints and undertaken increasingly ambitious projects, seeking solutions initially by trial and error and later through scientific study, The final part of the book looks to the future and discusses the threats to a number of great cities and what has been done to counter them. This fascinating history, written with humour and affection, pays tribute to the largely unknown ‘backroom boys’ of construction, whose work usually attracts attention only when things go wrong.

So Your Home Is Built on Expansive Soils: A Discussion of How Expansive Soils Affect Buildings

Author(s): Warren K. Wray (Editor)

Publisher: Amer Soc of Civil Engineers

Paperback: 65 pages

ISBN: 0784401098

ISBN-13: 978-0784401095

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Paperback

Publication date: July 1995

So Your Home Is Built on Expansive Soils: A Discussion of How Expansive Soils Affect Buildings